Other suffixes

There are several different letters which can be added to the end of words to change the meaning of the original word.

Sometimes adding a suffix makes an adjectives (or describing word):

    -able:    misery + able =     miserable
    -al:    season + al =     seasonal
    -ary:    second + ary =     secondary
    -ible:    horror + ible =     horrible
    -ic:    history + ic =     historic
    -ish:    child + ish =     childish
    -ist:    balloon + ist =     balloonist
    -ous:    humour + ous =     humourous
    -less:    home + less =     homeless

Sometimes adding a suffix makes a noun:

    -er:    teach + er =     teacher
    -hood:    father + hood =     fatherhood
    -ment:    enjoy + ment =     enjoyment
    -ness:    happy + ness =     happiness
    -ship:    owner + ship =     ownership
    -tion:    educate + tion =     education
    
Normally, all you need to do is add the suffix to the root word. But, sometimes, adding a suffix can change the spelling of the root word.



If the original word (called the root word) ends with a consonant, and the suffix starts with a consonant, just add the suffix
 
    child +     less =     childless
    duck +     ling =     duckling
    fair +     ness =     fairness
    mother +     hood =     motherhood


If the root word ends with a silent e, and the suffix starts
with a vowel, drop the silent e:
 
    nerve +     ous =     nervous
    exam +     ation =     examination
    place +     ment =     placement    (this is not a silent e!)

Also note:

    acreage, loveable

Test:
Which ones of the following start with vowels, and which of the following start with consonents

   -able   -age   -al    -ary    -er
   -ery    -ful   -ible   -ic    -ish
   -hood   -ist   -ous   -less   -ment
   -ness   -ship   -sion   -tion
                     
            
  
                              



If word ends in -ce or -ge, and the suffix
starts with an a or o, the e is kept:

Courageous, noticeable



Also note:

age    >>>    ageing
Test:
Which of the following suffixes start with an ‘a’ or a ‘o’:

   -age,     -ance,    -ar,    -ary,    -or,    -ory,    -ous,  

                     
            
  
                              



Be careful about adding a suffix to words ending in a ‘y’ as this will sometimes change into an ‘i’
 
If the letter before the y is a vowel, then add the suffix

    enjoy +  hood =   enjoyment
    boy +  ment =   boyhood

If the letter before the y is not a vowel, change the y to an -i
    happy +  ness =   happiness
    plenty +  ful =   plentiful
    easy >>>  easily
    tidy >>>  tidy

(this is similar to the rule for the plural form)

Test:
Which of the following have a vowel before the y?

   daily        employ      empty       enjoy       happy
   lazy         nasty         pretty        ready      silly
   tidy

            
  
                              

-ful

When full is added as a suffix, it is shortened to ‘ful’

    help +  full =   helpful
    care +  full =   careful

-ous

The suffix -ous means full of:

    Joy   >>>   joyous

When it is added to words ending in -our, the ‘u’ is lost:

    humour >>>  humorous
    vigour >>>  vigorous
    glamour >>>  glamorous