Soft and hard c and g

The letter 'c' can be spoken in two different ways.

When it is used in words such as:

        cat, cart, corn, echo 


it is called a hard c, and may be spelt with a k as in

        snake, kid


The letter 'c' may also be used in words such as:

        cinema, circus, cycle       

which is called a soft c. It sounds like an 's', and usually comes before an i, y or e


Soft and hard g

In a similar way, the letter g can be spoken in two different ways:


When it is used in words such as:
       girl, green, glove       

it is called a hard g.

The letter 'g' may also be used in words such as:

      gentle, giant, giraffe   

which is called a soft g. It sounds like a 'j', and usually comes before an i, y or e.

Exceptions to this are get, girl, gift.
                   

C and k

K at the end of a word containing a ‘short vowel’ needs to be preceeded by a c, for example:

        Pack, back, lick, sock  

After a ‘long vowel’, the c is not needed, for example:

        Fork, talk, bike