Plurals

A plural is when there is more than one of a object. For example,

    One girl         Two girls


To make a plural, normally, words just add a -s:

       boy   >>>   boys
       girl   >>>   girls
       dog   >>>   dogs

   



If a word ends in an -s or an -ss, add -es to make the plural

       gas   >>>   gases
       dress   >>>   dresses
       bus   >>>   buses
       glass   >>>   glasses

Sophie needed her glasses to count the buses



If a word ends in a -x, -z, -ch or -sh, then add -es
 
       fox   >>>   foxes          box   >>>   boxes
       buzz   >>>   buzzes         fizz   >>>   fizzes
       arch   >>>   arches         bush   >>>   bushes
       fish   >>>   fishes         splash   >>>   splashes

The foxes sat behind the bushes



If a word ends in a -f, or -fe, change the ending to -ves

       leaf   >>>   leaves          loaf   >>>   loaves
       knife   >>>   knives         wife   >>>   wives

The wives sliced the loaves of bread with sharp knives



But there are exceptions:
chiefs,  proofs,  roofs,  beliefs


For words ending in -ff, just add -s for the plural
   
       cliff   >>>   cliffs          cuff   >>>   cuffs
       sheriff   >>>   sheriffs         tariff   >>>   tariffs

Test:
what are the plurals of these words?
chief cliff elf
half hoof
proof puff 
roof safe turf
                                                              
            


If the word ends in a -y



If the letter before the y is a vowel, add s to make the plural

       boy   >>>   boys
       tray   >>>   trays
       toy   >>>   toys


If the letter before the y is not a vowel, change the y to -ies to make the plural
 
       city   >>>   cities
       baby   >>>   babies
       lorry   >>>   lorries
       story   >>>   stories


   Babies like going in lorries


If the word ends in an -o


If the letter before the o is a vowel, just add -s
 
    zoo  >>>  zoos        



If the letter before the o is not a vowel, add -es
   
    buffaloes        cargoes        dominoes

    echoes           heroes          mosquitoes
    potatoes         tomatoes



There are exceptions:

    photos         discos       pianos



Some words remain the same in the plural:
 
    bread    deer    trout    sheep    salmon    aircraft


The sheep walked onto the aircraft






Some words do their own thing in the plural:
       child   >>>   children          foot   >>>   feet
       man   >>>   men         woman   >>>   women
       mouse   >>>   mice         tooth   >>>   teeth
       goose   >>>   geese


Test:
Can you think of any more examples?

   
            



More Plurals …

Some words don’t have a singular:

scissors
trousers
shears
tongs

scissors trousers shears tongs tweezers

Trousers were originally created by sewing two parts together!

Latin and Greek words, use the latin or greek plural forms:
       terminus   >>>   termini
       formula   >>>   formulae
       antenna   >>>   antennae
       medium   >>>   media
       axis   >>>   axes

Test:
See if you know these unusual plurals!

       son-in-law
       man-of-war
       brother-in-law
       brother-in-arms
       lay-by